Secondary stroke prevention refers to the treatment of individuals who have already had a stroke or transient ischemic attack.
Secondary prevention can be summarized by the mnemonic A, B, C, D, E, as follows:
A - Antiaggregants (aspirin, clopidogrel, extended-release dipyridamole, ticlopidine) and anticoagulants (apixaban, dabigatran, edoxaban, rivaroxaban, warfarin)
B - Blood pressure–lowering medications
C - Cessation of cigarette smoking, cholesterol-lowering medications, carotid revascularization
D - Diet
E – Exercise
Smoking cessation, blood pressure control, diabetes control, a low-fat diet (eg, Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension [DASH] or Mediterranean diets), weight loss, and regular exercise should be encouraged.