Tuesday, July 17, 2018

Can Stroke Lead to Dementia?

Dementia refers to a group of symptoms resulting in cognitive decline. This includes problems with memory, communication, and concentration. Dementia can happen after your brain has been damaged by an injury or disease, such as a stroke.
stroke, or a “brain attack,” occurs when blood flow to the brain is interrupted. If this happens because a blood vessel bursts, it’s known as a hemorrhagic stroke. Although this type of strokeis less common, it’s more likely to result in death.
If your stroke happens because a blood vessel is blocked by a blood clot, it’s known as an ischemic stroke. This type of stroke accounts for 87 percent of all strokes.
If blood flow is only interrupted for short time, it’s known as a transient ischemic attack (TIA), or “ministroke.” TIA symptoms lasts less than 24 hours before disappearing.
Both ischemic stroke and TIA are associated with vascular dementia. Vascular dementia is the second most common form of dementia.
Can having a stroke increase your risk for vascular dementia?
Vascular dementia can make it difficult for you to process information. Although it’s a common post-stroke problem, not everyone who has a stroke is at risk for vascular dementia. Your risk depends on the location and severity of your stroke. Your age, sex, and family history are also factors.
In a 2012 study, one researcher reviewed nine studies on dementia in people who’ve had a stroke. In total, the study looked at 5,514 people with pre- or post-stroke dementia. The study found that rates of post-stroke dementia were between 9.6 and 14.4 percent in people who’ve had one stroke. This rate increased to 29.6 to 53.1 percent in people with recurrent stroke.
It’s worth noting that adults over age 65 who have a high risk of stroke also have a high risk of dementia unrelated to stroke. In the same 2012 study, it was determined that stroke is a risk factor for dementia, and dementia is a risk factor for stroke.
Rates from 9 studies show that about 10 percent of people who’ve had a stroke will develop dementia within the first year after the stroke.
Are there different types of vascular dementia?
There are four different types of vascular dementia. Three of these types are related to stroke. Each type affects a different part of the brain and results from a different type of damage. Symptoms vary and can progress in different ways.

Single-infarct dementia

An infarct refers to an area of cells that has died from a lack of blood supply. This typically happens when someone has one large ischemic stroke.

Multi-infarct dementia

This type generally occurs after a person has had multiple ministrokes over time. These ministrokes can cause tiny spots of damage scattered throughout the brain.

Subcortical dementia

Subcortical dementia is associated with lacunar stroke, a form of ischemic stroke. Lacunar stroke occurs when small arteries located deep in the brain are blocked.
Subcortical dementia is caused by small vessel disease. Small vessel disease can happen when vessels deep inside your brain become completely blocked as a result of a lacunar stroke. The resulting damage may progress to subcortical dementia.
It’s also known as subcortical vascular dementia.

Mixed dementia

When vascular dementia occurs at the same time as Alzheimer’s disease, it’s known as mixed dementia. One of the two types is generally more apparent. The dominant type will determine the course of treatment.

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